Author Topic: FE Power Cylinder Heads  (Read 8560 times)

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chris401

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Re: FE Power Cylinder Heads
« Reply #120 on: March 12, 2019, 11:21:17 PM »
Do you have any thoughts about a direct injection FE head? Probably not a high demand item considering all the other expense involved. New tech under a semi old look would be interesting.

jayb

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Re: FE Power Cylinder Heads
« Reply #121 on: March 13, 2019, 02:31:30 PM »
I briefly considered something like that, but quickly discarded the idea based on the lack of aftermarket support for the parts required.  You're talking about a fuel system that has to run in the thousands of psi, injectors capable of handling combustion temperature and the fuel pressure, specialized EFI software, etc.  In addition, I read somewhere that direct injection, while excellent for efficiency and fuel economy, is not capable of delivering as much horsepower as a good standard EFI system, because there is no time to cool the incoming air with evaporation of the fuel.  I think Ford, or some other manufacturer, is doing some combination of direct injection and port injection for their higher performance engines, transitioning to the port injection at the higher engine speeds to get more power.  Maybe someone here can confirm, or correct me, on this...
Jay Brown
- 1969 Mach 1, Drag Week 2005 Winner NA/BB, 511" FE (10.60s @ 129); Drag Week 2007 Runner-Up PA/BB, 490" Supercharged FE (9.35 @ 151)
- 1964 Ford Galaxie, Drag Week 2009 Winner Modified NA (9.50s @ 143), 585" SOHC
- 1969 Shelby Clone, Drag Week 2015 Winner Modified NA (Average 8.98 @ 149), 585" SOHC

   

Heo

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Re: FE Power Cylinder Heads
« Reply #122 on: March 13, 2019, 03:06:45 PM »
Yes i read that somewhere, or something along that line


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Katz427

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Re: FE Power Cylinder Heads
« Reply #123 on: March 13, 2019, 04:27:50 PM »
The Gen3 coyote engine has both direct and port injection, for the reasons Jay stated, plus the intake valve stays cleaner.

feadam

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Re: FE Power Cylinder Heads
« Reply #124 on: March 14, 2019, 01:26:26 PM »
Jay
as cast what kind of flow numbers are you guessing the heads will flow?


Yellow Truck

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Re: FE Power Cylinder Heads
« Reply #125 on: March 14, 2019, 01:44:11 PM »
The Ecoboost and all other direct injection gas engines have two problems not experienced with port injection: the first is any recirculated gasses tend to coke up the intake valves because the are not washed by fuel and they get nearly as hot as exhaust valves. Fuel both washes and cools the intake valve train. Second is that they are limited in how much fuel they can inject. This is fine for a normal engine up to about 400 hp. On later engines I read that Ford went to a combination of port and direct injection, and this was driven by the power needs of the Raptor version of the engine.
1969 F100 4WD (It ain't yellow anymore)
445 with BBM heads, Prison Break stroker kit, hydrualic roller cam, T&D rockers, Street Dominator Intake with QFT SS 830.

Paul.

jayb

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Re: FE Power Cylinder Heads
« Reply #126 on: March 15, 2019, 09:31:13 PM »
It has been a GREAT week at FE Power.  After thinking about the cylinder head project for so many years, even starting back when I did the high riser and tunnel port intake adapter, and then working on it for the last year and a half, it was great to finally have a finished head in my hands and start to get it ready to run.  I am definitely having too much fun this week ;D ;D  Note that  this is a long post with a lot of pictures, for anyone who doesn't want to read through the whole thing.

After fighting through an extended CNC machine repair in February, and then a failed air compressor a couple weeks ago, at the start of this month I was finally able to start machining the fixtures and the first head.  It took me a week to write the programs and machine the fixtures required to hold the cylinder head on the rotary axis of the CNC machine, but last Thursday I was finally able to get my first head casting bolted down on the fixture.  I started writing the machining programs for the head last Friday, and ran the operations one at a time as I went along to check them out.  The pictures shown earlier in this thread show the head during the first operation, where most of the machining is done.  I didn't finish the first operation up until Tuesday night, and as usual I made a few errors along the way, but fortunately I was able to repair these with some aluminum bolts and JB Weld, so despite the errors this head is usable.  And now that I've de-bugged the machining programs, the next head should come out with no problems.

Wednesday I was looking forward to getting the head moved onto a different fixture for the second machining operation, but before I did that I made a trip down to the foundry to watch them pour the next piece needed for this project.  This was my individual runner intake manifold.  I had previously completed the design and 3D printed it for the PRI show; pictures below:






After the cylinder head casting was complete, I had the sand for the intake setup made and shipped to the foundry.  They poured it Wednesday morning, following the same basic procedure as they did when pouring the heads.  One thing that was a bit different on this pour was that my file for one of the runners had some kind of an error in it, and resulted in a thin gap in the core of one of the runners.  There's a picture of the runner cores below, where you can see this gap:




To address this issue the foundry used some kind of high temperature putty, called Core Mud, to fill the gap:




The next three photos show the drag, cope, and completed mold.  This mold did not require any sleeves in the risers, like the cylinder head did, and it also did not require a chill.  Again I apologize for the poor picture quality, but it is really dark in the foundry, and the flash washes out a lot of detail, so the exposure time is rather long:








The next pictures show the mold with the lead weights on top, ready for the pour, the pouring process, and the completed filled mold:








And here is the casting broken out of the mold.  It came out really looking good.  I have the four runners attached together through the center with a bar; the bar is actually dimensioned on the ends the same as the cylinder head, so that it will fit right into the cylinder head machining fixture, with only a minor modification:








I will machine most of the surfaces on these four runners together, and then bolt them to a different fixture to cut them apart.  I'm really looking forward to seeing this whole setup complete and installed on one of my intake adapters; I'm hoping to have it ready for the FE Reunion.  And it sure is fun watching this stuff get made at the foundry!

Back at the shop Wednesday afternoon I bolted an additional cylinder head fixture onto the first one; this fixture is required for the second machining operation on the head and tilts the head at an angle, in order to counterbore, drill and tap the spark plug holes.  Also, with this fixture the head can be positioned vertically, so the ends of the head can be machined, and drilled and tapped for the holes in the end.  The three pictures below show the head on this additional fixture, while being machined.  The first photo shows the "handle" on the far end of the head being machined off.  This has to be done in order to tilt the head up 90 degrees, because if the handle is still there it will actually hit the CNC table and prevent the head from rotating (I am definitely at the limits for size in this CNC machine).  The second picture shows the head tilted at about 10 degrees, and one of the spark plug holes being drilled.  The third picture shows the head positioned vertically and being drilled for the holes in the end:








I finished up all the machining on the head on Thursday night.  Friday morning I installed the thread inserts (more on this later), grabbed the guides, seats, and valves that I had decided on for these heads and drove over to R&R Performance, where my automotive machinist friend Bryan was ready to get the head assembled.  At this point, the head was still an unknown to me, and despite all the design work and research I had done over the last year and a half on how these heads should be made, I was still concerned that something bad would happen during assembly.  I had concerns that the cast area around the guides would split when the guides were pressed in, or the casting would crack when the seats were pounded in, or there would be some other unknown problems that would show up.  Walking into the shop I was prepared to be disappointed; it was too much to hope for that everything would be perfect on the first try.

Bryan went to work first on the guides.  I had purchase some off-the-shelf guides which were a little long, so he cut them all down by 1/4" and then installed them.  None of the guide supports cracked when he pounded them in, and he said it felt like they had the right amount of press.  So far so good.

Next came the seat installation.  I was worried about this because the seats have to go in with a lot of press, about 0.006" in most cases.  They are pounded in with an arbor that indexes on the valve guide which has already been installed, in order to keep the arbor square with the seat and seat pocket.  I've never watched valve seats being installed before, and I couldn't believe how hard Bryan had to hit the arbor with his small sledge in order to make them go in.  At the end of each installation the whole casting would ring as the arbor was hit with a small sledge hammer.  But again, all 8 seats were successfully installed with no apparent detrimental effects to the casting. 

Next came a valve job on a single cylinder.  The valves I had on hand were 5/16" stem, 2.350" diameter on the intake and 1.800" diameter on the exhaust.  They needed to be cut down, because I wanted to set this head up with 2.300" intakes and 1.675" exhausts.  Bryan cut them down to the correct size and also put a back cut on the intake valve.  Next he turned to the head.  On the intake, he cut the seat inside diameter out to 2.0875", which is just over 90% of the intake head diameter.  When he was done, there was a nice ridge of the aluminum casting extending out beyond the inside of the seat, probably 0.100" all around.  This was what I had designed for (and what everybody else designs for), to allow the area under the seat to be contoured by hand for a smooth path from the seat into the port.  Everything looked good.

My luck ran out on the exhaust side, unfortunately.  When the inside diameter of the exhaust seat was cut, on one side there was barely any overhang of the casting into the seat inside diameter at all, and on the other side the casting was way inside the inside diameter of the seat.  Basically, the back of the seat was hanging out into the port.  Somehow, I had made a mistake in the design file resulting in this issue.  It was going to hurt the exhaust flow significantly. 

Regardless, we'd come this far and we were going to finish this thing today.  Bryan took the head into the porting room and smoothed out the area under the intake seat, and did the same on the exhaust seat as best as he could.  The moment of truth had arrived:  time for a flow test!

I had previously had my 3D printed plastic head flowed.  I only got a peak flow number because there was no way to really do a valve job on the plastic head, and that would have had a major impact on the lower lift numbers, but that head delivered 405 cfm at 0.700" lift on a 4.25" bore.  Of course, I had to take that number with a grain of salt; I wasn't 100% sure that the plastic was completely airtight, there was no plug in the chamber for that test (the hole was just blocked with clay), and the radius that I had used in place of the valve seat and valve job was an unknown.  So I waited nervously, like an expectant father (LOL!) outside the flow bench room while Bryan ran the test. 

The results on the intake side were all I could hope for.  I think it is rather remarkable that the 3D printed plastic head flowed 405 cfm at 0.700" lift, and the aluminum head flowed 403 cfm at 0.700" lift.  Peak flow was 416 cfm at 0.800", and it also flowed 416 cfm at 0.900", which showed that the port was not backing up at the higher lift numbers.  This is the best flowing FE wedge head I've ever seen, besting my Blue Thunder High Risers (which were treated to about $2500 in hand porting), and this head flowed those numbers as cast, and with a much smaller cross sectional port area.  Wow, was I happy about that.  Further, the inside surface of the ports is pretty rough, not as smooth as a lot of castings.  I think this has to do with the 3D printed sand, it is just a much rougher texture than normal casting sand.  Bryan thought that the port would pick up significantly, maybe 10-15 cfm, with just a cartridge roll smoothing of the inside port surfaces.

Predictably, the results on the exhaust side were not as good.  I had been hoping for a peak of around 280 cfm, but the port just edged over 230 cfm.  So, I've got some work to do on the exhaust port design yet.  Fortunately for me, its only a matter of changing the port design on the computer, and getting another batch of 3D printed sand made up to test an improved version.

These flow numbers were done on a 4.25" bore, so we ran them again on a 4.375" bore to see if there was any improvement, but they were mostly the same.  All the flow results are shown in the table below:



When I got home tonight I also checked the chamber volume with the valves installed and it came in at 69 cc, which is just a couple ccs bigger than I thought it would be, so that all looks good.

Here are some pictures of the head as it sits at the moment.  First the deck surface:




This is one of the chambers where the seats have been installed, but no valve job has been done.  By the way, notice the small shallow hole to the left of the lower head bolt hole.  This is a machined cavity that indexes to a pin on my fixture.  It is machined to a specific depth, 0.200".  Because of this machining, this hole, and one other on the other side of the head, can be used to determine how much the deck of the head has been cut in the future.  Kind of like the thumbprint deal on factory heads, but much more precise.




And here is the chamber with the valve job:




If you look closely at the intake side, up at the top towards the water jacket opening you can see two round plugs that I installed to fix a machining error.  Doh!  Also, you will notice the bolt holes in the end of the head.  Here and in several other places I'm using an insert to prevent pulling out the aluminum threads.  I thought about using Timeserts but I've had problems with those cracking on my Blue Thunder heads, so I've gone to a product called E-Z Loks.  I've used these for many years now, on other heads where the threads needed repair, and have always liked how they work.  Also, one other point about the bolt holes in the end of the head is that I've designed the head so that both ends use them, not just one end.  I figure more mounting points for accessories are always good.







Exhaust port side:




These two pictures are close ups of the ports, showing the rough cast finish.  Notice the rough surface that is also shown on the exterior of the head.  The horizontal lines correspond to layers put down by the 3D sand printer.  Those lines are also present in the ports, which is why Bryan figured that a little smoothing in the ports might pick up the flow.







Despite the setback on the exhaust port, the results for the intake port have me pretty excited.  The intake port is far more important, and appears to be capable of supporting a 900 HP engine right out of the box, which was one of the goals for this project.  I will post more pictures after I get the individual runner intake manifold machined.  And I will be bringing these heads to show at the FE Reunion, for anyone who is going to see - Jay
Jay Brown
- 1969 Mach 1, Drag Week 2005 Winner NA/BB, 511" FE (10.60s @ 129); Drag Week 2007 Runner-Up PA/BB, 490" Supercharged FE (9.35 @ 151)
- 1964 Ford Galaxie, Drag Week 2009 Winner Modified NA (9.50s @ 143), 585" SOHC
- 1969 Shelby Clone, Drag Week 2015 Winner Modified NA (Average 8.98 @ 149), 585" SOHC

   

Tommy A

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Re: FE Power Cylinder Heads
« Reply #127 on: March 15, 2019, 10:06:37 PM »
WOW Jay, that head is totally knocked outta the park, thanks for going above and beyond the call of duty, now I need a towel to clean the "drool" off the keyboard............Tom

TomP

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Re: FE Power Cylinder Heads
« Reply #128 on: March 15, 2019, 10:35:21 PM »
Yes, wow. You really did a great job on that. The smoothing is a simple task most of us should be able to do so i'd say they are near ready to sell.
Time to enjoy beer!

Yellow Truck

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Re: FE Power Cylinder Heads
« Reply #129 on: March 15, 2019, 11:26:51 PM »
Congratulations Jay, that is brilliant. One question - I see the section where they applied the high temperature mud is quite smooth. I also looked it up since I was curious, and Hill and Griffiths promote it for smoothing rough cores.

Would it make sense to smooth some of the harder to clean up areas pre-cast? I don't know how hard the stuff is to apply, but it would be easy enough to reduce the dimensions slightly to allow for a thin coat (easy for you, given what you already done).
1969 F100 4WD (It ain't yellow anymore)
445 with BBM heads, Prison Break stroker kit, hydrualic roller cam, T&D rockers, Street Dominator Intake with QFT SS 830.

Paul.

Dan859

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Re: FE Power Cylinder Heads
« Reply #130 on: March 16, 2019, 05:10:55 AM »
Hi Jay,
Will that cross-ram intake system work on one of your regular intake adapters?  Because if it will, I think I'm going to have to make the jump to an EFI system)).
Thanks,
Dan

jayb

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Re: FE Power Cylinder Heads
« Reply #131 on: March 16, 2019, 05:54:57 AM »
Congratulations Jay, that is brilliant. One question - I see the section where they applied the high temperature mud is quite smooth. I also looked it up since I was curious, and Hill and Griffiths promote it for smoothing rough cores.

Would it make sense to smooth some of the harder to clean up areas pre-cast? I don't know how hard the stuff is to apply, but it would be easy enough to reduce the dimensions slightly to allow for a thin coat (easy for you, given what you already done).

That's a good idea, but I think that in practice it would be nearly impossible to accomplish.  If you look at the pictures of the cylinder head core on the first page of this post, you can see that, for example, you don't have access all the way down the port cores to put the core mud on.  You also wouldn't have access to coat the outside surfaces of the head (inside surfaces of the core), because of the other parts of the core inside.  Plus it would take forever to coat each core with that stuff.  Easier and faster I think to just spend 10 minutes on each port with a cartridge roll...
Jay Brown
- 1969 Mach 1, Drag Week 2005 Winner NA/BB, 511" FE (10.60s @ 129); Drag Week 2007 Runner-Up PA/BB, 490" Supercharged FE (9.35 @ 151)
- 1964 Ford Galaxie, Drag Week 2009 Winner Modified NA (9.50s @ 143), 585" SOHC
- 1969 Shelby Clone, Drag Week 2015 Winner Modified NA (Average 8.98 @ 149), 585" SOHC

   

jayb

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Re: FE Power Cylinder Heads
« Reply #132 on: March 16, 2019, 06:00:53 AM »
Hi Jay,
Will that cross-ram intake system work on one of your regular intake adapters?  Because if it will, I think I'm going to have to make the jump to an EFI system)).
Thanks,
Dan

Sorry Dan, but the crossram setup will not fit my regular intake adapters.  The head is significantly different than any other FE head, and the induction systems I'm working on for it won't fit any other FE setup.
Jay Brown
- 1969 Mach 1, Drag Week 2005 Winner NA/BB, 511" FE (10.60s @ 129); Drag Week 2007 Runner-Up PA/BB, 490" Supercharged FE (9.35 @ 151)
- 1964 Ford Galaxie, Drag Week 2009 Winner Modified NA (9.50s @ 143), 585" SOHC
- 1969 Shelby Clone, Drag Week 2015 Winner Modified NA (Average 8.98 @ 149), 585" SOHC

   

Katz427

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Re: FE Power Cylinder Heads
« Reply #133 on: March 16, 2019, 08:38:39 AM »
Hi Jay! We're the exhaust numbers with or without a length of pipe ? I assume without.

jayb

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Re: FE Power Cylinder Heads
« Reply #134 on: March 16, 2019, 08:45:13 AM »
There was a 4" long, 2" OD pipe attached to the exhaust during the flow test.  Just a clay radius on the intake port.
Jay Brown
- 1969 Mach 1, Drag Week 2005 Winner NA/BB, 511" FE (10.60s @ 129); Drag Week 2007 Runner-Up PA/BB, 490" Supercharged FE (9.35 @ 151)
- 1964 Ford Galaxie, Drag Week 2009 Winner Modified NA (9.50s @ 143), 585" SOHC
- 1969 Shelby Clone, Drag Week 2015 Winner Modified NA (Average 8.98 @ 149), 585" SOHC